Technology: heat insulation of balconies

Technology: HEAT INSULATION OF BALCONIES


Uses of the heat insulation system

  • Complete systems of thermal insulation inside the premises.
  • Heat saving during the heating season.
  • Energy saving in summer period.
  • Prevention of mold growth inside the structure.

System elements

System elements


  1. Concrete substrate
  2. Adhesive solution ZM-01

    The solution is designed for the installation of heat insulation plates from expanded polystyrene to the inner surfaces of the balcony or loggia (floor, ceiling, and wall). The solution is applicable to all existing construction substrates.

  3. Heat insulation system tiles made of expanded polystyrene

    EPS 70 expanded polystyrene is used as the main heat-insulating material for the walls and ceiling. For the heat insulation of balcony or loggia floors it is necessary to use EPS 100 with high density coefficient. It is designed for the insulation in places with high mechanical loads. Expanded polystyrene is composed of a flame retardant material to prevent combustion. Maximum flammability class D1.

    Brand EPS 70 EPS 100
    Density, kg/m3 13,5 25,5
    Thermal conductivity, W/(mK) 0,039 0,036
    Compressive strength, kPa 60 100
    Tensile strength, kPa 100 125
    Ultimate flexural strength, kPa 100 150
    Water absorption per volume in 24h, % 2 2
    Afterflame time, s 2 2
    Flammability class D1 D1
  4. ZM-02 adhesive reinforcing solution

    The adhesive solution is designed to make a coating reinforced by facade netting. The coating forms a protection from mechanical damage and is used for the subsequent finishing of the wall. The adhesive reinforcing coating consists of an adhesive solution and netting that is sunk into the solution.

  5. Reinforcing netting

    The glass fiber reinforcing netting is recommended for the reinforcement of plastering and spackling coatings on the interior and exterior surfaces of buildings and structures of various purposes.

  6. Acrylic primer

    The priming mixture increases the adhesion to the decorative coating. Partially prevents the penetration of moisture into the insulated coating. The primer is white in colour. In the case of using coarse plaster, the priming coating should be painted.

  7. Disk-shaped dowel
  8. Decorative priming coating
  9. Installation of the finishing substrate (linoleum, laminate, parquet etc.)

There are several types of plasters.

Acrylic plaster
Produced based on acrylic resins. It is a ready-to-use water-dispersion composition. May be applied on old dispersion surfaces and mineral substrates. Coloured in the selected color or painted with acrylic paints. The main advantage is the resistance to climate. No need for repair for 15-20 years, however has a low rate of vapor permeability.

Important notice: Due to the low vapor permeability is not allowed to use on plaster facade systems that are based on mineral wool.

Silicate plaster
Produced based on liquid potash glass. It is a ready-to-use mixture. Suitable for use on prepared mineral substrates and over old silicate surfaces. The downside is the need to be used together with a silicate primer, as well as the small variety of colors. Partial discoloration during heavy slanting rain is also possible. However, after drying the colour of the coating becomes of the same colour as before.

Silicone plaster
Produced based on silicone resins. It is a ready-to-use composition. It is used on all types of mineral substrates and on old dispersion surfaces. Coloured in the selected color or painted with acrylic paints.

Mineral decorative plaster
Contains water-repellent additives in the form of a dry mixture. After dilution with water forms a homogeneous plaster solution.

Mounting of the heat insulation system

Preliminary works

For the best heat insulation efficiency of the balcony/loggia, the design should have a triple-pane window of the thickness of 32 mm or more. Before starting heat installation works it is necessary to close all the through-holes with mounting foam. After drying, remove the remnants of hardened foam, dirt, and dust.

Preliminary works
Substrate processing

The surface must be primed with a roller or painting brush to ensure adhesion with the adhesive solution. Deep-penetrating primer fills the cracks and partially prevents the penetration of moisture into the insulated coating.

Substrate processing
Adhesive for expanded polystyrene plates

The adhesive is applied to the plates with a notched trowel on the perimeter with a strip of 30-50 mm, thickness of 10 mm with a deviation from the edge by 20 mm, 6-8 strokes with a diameter of 150 mm and a thickness of about 10 mm are placed in the center of the plates. The adhesive solution should be at least 40% per cent of the area of the plate. After applying the solution it is necessary to glue the plates within 10 minutes.

Important notice: The adhesive solution should not get into the seams between the plates.

Adhesive for expanded polystyrene plates
Expanded polystyrene foam

Facade of a balcony/loggia. Expanded polystyrene blocks are installed upwards in such a way that the subsequent seam falls into the center of the plate forming T-shaped joints.
If you are using the so-called "wet" method of heat insulation of the walls it is recommended to fix the plates with a disk-shaped dowels.

Floor of balcony/loggia. Expanded polystyrene blocks are installed in one or two layers using "dry" method without the use of adhesive solutions and disk-shaped dowels.

Ceiling of balcony/loggia. Expanded polystyrene blocks are installed in one layer. If the heat insulation of the ceiling is made using the "wet" method, it is necessary to fixate the expanded polystyrene blocks with disk-shaped dowels.

Important notice: All corner pieces are to be additionally armoured with an angle bar with reinforcing netting.
Expanded polystyrene foam
Reinforcing surface

With a notched trowel apply the reinforcing solution to the surface of expanded polystyrene blocks, without waiting for crusting.
After drying, treat the surface with the priming mixture, when necessary, add a colorant to the colour of the decorative plaster to avoid the appearance of white specs in the “rustic-textured” decorative coating.

Important notice: Before applying protective decorative plaster the surface should dry completely.

Reinforcing surface
Decorative finishing coating

The decorative plaster is applied with a spatula in circular motions by 1 square meter at a time, after the application of the whole decorative coating, use a grater to level the surface and remove excesses.

There are many different techniques for applying a decorative coating, the method of applying the “vermiculation“ is explained above.

Important notice: The decorative finishing coating dries within 15 minutes.

Decorative finishing coating